Bolivia (also Bolivia; Aymara: Wuliwya, Quechua: Bulibiya, Guaraní: Volívia), completely the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Spanish: Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia, Aymara: Wuliwya Suyu, Quechua: Bulibya Mamallaqta, Guaraní: Tetã Volívia in) South America that borders Peru, Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina and Chile.
Prior to European colonization, the Andes region of Bolivia was part of the Inca Empire - the largest state in pre-Columbian America. The Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century. During most of the Spanish colonial period, this area was called Upper Peru. After declaring independence in 1809, 16 years of war followed before the republic, named after Simón Bolívar, was established on August 6, 1825. Bolivia has struggled with periods of political instability, dictatorships and economic misery.
Bolivia is a democratic republic. It is a developing country, with a mediocre human development index and a poverty level of 53%.  The main economic activities include agriculture, forestry, fishing, mining and the production of goods such as textiles, clothing, refined metals, and refined petroleum products. Bolivia is very rich in minerals, in particular tin.
The Bolivian population, estimated at 10 million, is multi-ethnic, with for example Indians, mestizos, Europeans and Africans. The spoken language is Spanish, although Aymara, Quechua and Guarani are also official, as are 33 other indigenous languages. The large number of different cultures in Bolivia has contributed greatly to a great diversity in areas such as art, gastronomy, literature and music.